UPSC General Studies 2014 Paper I Solutions
- To what extent has the urban planning and culture in the Indus Valley Civilization provided inputs to the present day urbanization? Discuss
The urban planning and culture of the Indus valley civilization provided the input to the present day urbanization in many way:
- A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilization. The quality of municipal town planning suggests the knowledge of urban planning and efficient municipal governments which placed a high priority on hygiene.
- The Indus civilization’s economy appears to have depended significantly on trade, which was facilitated by major advances in transport technology
- Indus systems of sewerage and drainage that were developed (hydraulic engineering of the Indus Valley Civilization).
- Harappan society had no rulers, and everybody enjoyed equal status.
These points highlight the influence of the Indus Valley civilization on the modern urbanization. The whole structure of the modern urban centers follow a similar symmetry in terms of patterns of settlement. Similarly, while the economic activities have diversified in the modern urban centers, the role of trade and manufacturing has remained important, like that of the Indus Valley Civilization
2. Gandhara sculpture owed as much to the Romans as to the Greeks. Explain.
The Gandhara School of Art was initially a Greeco-Roman-Buddhist art. The Gandhara region had long been a crossroads of cultural influences. Gandhara arts have maintained multifold contacts with Rome and Greek. In its interpretation of Buddhist legends, the Gandhara school incorporated many motifs and techniques from Classical Roman art, including vine scrolls, cherubs bearing garlands, tritons, and centaurs. The basic iconography, however, remained Indian.
The Gandhara school drew upon the anthropomorphic traditions of Roman and Greek religion and represented the Buddha with a youthful Apollo-like face, dressed in garments resembling those seen on Roman imperial statues. Some of the special features found in this schools are- spiritual Buddha represents calmness; bearded Buddha, with mustache; wavy hair Buddha, with large forehead with Urna. The sculpture, under the Gandhara art was made in close resemblance to the Roman-Greeko images of Gods.
Greek sculpture believed in mythological and idealist statues, while the Roman sculpture was more realistic. The Gandhara sculpture evolved as a hybrid of these characteristics.
3: Taxila University was one of the oldest universities of the world with which were associated a number of renowned learned personalities of different disciplines. Its strategic location caused its fame to flourish but unlike Nalanda, it is not considered as a university in the modern sense. Discuss.
The location of Taxila university made it popular because it lied at the passage of India from central Asia. The foreign rulers and scholar were attracted towards it because of its location which resulted into flourishing of the university. But the main reasons that it is not considered as a university in a moder sense are:
- Nalanda university had disciplines of Astronomy, Mathematics, Politics and Science; while Taxila university was mainly associated with teaching of Vedic literature and art skills like archery and hunting only.
- The Nalanda university had students from Korea, China, Japan, Tibet, Persia and Turkey, on the other hand, Taxila had students from Indian Janpadas and adjoining areas only. Thus, having a limited spread in terms of engagement of students.
- The ratio between the teacher and student were ideal in Nalanda which is considered standard in modern concepts also. Dormitories for students, meditation room, separate classroom, huge library in Nalanda has made it closer to modern concept of university .
- The expenditure of Nalanda were met from the revenues of 100 villages, while in Taxila economic requirement were made by the rulers. Notwithstanding of its strategic location, it can not be considered as modern university in comparison to Nalanda in modern context.
4: The third battle of Panipat was fought in 1761. Why were so many empire-shaking battles fought in Panipat?
The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761, at Panipat, between the forces of the Maratha Empire and the invading forces of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali. The reason why so many battle fought in Panipat were:
The belligerents ended up fighting in the general area of Haryana due to two reasons:
- One of the parties almost always came from the North/Northwest.
- Both parties wanted Delhi, because it is smack in the middle of two of the most agriculturally productive regions of the world. The Plains of the Indus and the Ganga. Whoever controls Delhi, controls North India.
This was the reason even far-flung kingdoms, based in Kabul, or Pune chose to send huge armies to Delhi, because they thought the investment was worth it. Conflicts that could have been long drawn-out wars (like the Mughal campaign in the Deccan) often became watershed battles in the North, because Delhi/Agra were big time seats of power and the stakes were always high.
5: Sufis and medieval saints failed to modify either religious ideas and practices or the outward structure of Hindu/Muslim societies to any appreciable extent. Comment.
The Sufi and Medieval saints represent an important aspect of the medieval times in India. This generation of saints emerged as a reaction to the growing orthodoxy and superstition in the Hindu religion, and decried the degrading situation of the social order. However, an analysis of the impact of these saints reveal that they failed to mark a significant change in the social order. This might be because:
- The Sufi and other saints generally propagated their ideas by singing and preaching to the local populace. While their message was received by a good number of audience, the memory of the same could not last long due to the nomadic nature of these saints.
- There was no institutional structure formed by these groups. Thus, the message propagated failed to mark a long-term change. Also, without any organised structure of followers, the lineage of the saints could not continue.
- The sufi and bhakti saints failed to offer a proper alternative to the social customs that they attacked. Thus, the absence of an alternative to the social customs left the status of the traditions unaffected.Most of the followers of the sufi and bhakti movement came from the lower strata of the society. It was much difficult for such sections to break the shackles of the religious and social customs and form a new cult of their own.
- Another significant reason for the limited spread of ideas was that the geographical reach of these saints was limited.
- There also existed great factionism among the bhakti saints as well as sufi order, due to which these groups could not form a unified order. The ideas of these saints were often different to each other.
6: Examine critically the various facets of economic policies of the British in India from mid-eighteenth century till independence. 10 Marks
The various aspects of the economic policies of British in India from 1750s to 1947 could be observed as:
- In the mid-eighteenth century, a major change occurred in the relationship between Indian states and the East India Company (British). Through the Battle of Plassey (1757) and Battle of Buxar (1764), the EIC assumed the diwani rights of a large part of East India, thus transforming it’s stature from a merchant to a revenue collector. Thus, the EIC began to profit from trading as well as revenue collection.
- The period of the second half of the 18th century witnessed a number of reforms in the Indian revenue system, in the form of various land revenue systems, like- Zamindari (Permanent Settlement), Ryotwari and Mahalwari systems.
- The British also moulded the development of the various forms of industries and plantations, as per their needs. Thus, steps were taken to develop large plantation crops and cash crops. At the same time, there was a decline of the traditional crafts and handicrafts, which were not well received by the English.
- A watershed in the economic policies of India was the Revolt of 1857, after which the control of the Indian subcontinent went to the hands of the British crown. Since then, the British also reformed the attitude towards the Indian Princely states, considering them as allies and accommodating their existence within the ambit of the British paramountcy.
- The rule of British, since 1858, became an imperial rule in the modern sense. British derived large amount of resources, in the form of Home Charges and other means, and used arbitrary duties for trade with India.
- British also dictated the terms of international trade for India, and often restricted the Indian traders to transact with nations, that were hostile to Britain.
- Finally, Britain also used Indian economy as an appendage to pursue the colonial missions abroad.
However, in a long run, the economic policies of British worked to sow the seed of industrial development in India.
7: In what ways did the naval mutiny prove to be the last nail in the coffin of British colonial aspirations in India?
The Royal Indian Navy mutiny (also called the Royal Indian Navy Revolt or Bombay Mutiny) encompasses a total strike and subsequent revolt by Indian sailors of the Royal Indian Navy on board ship and shore establishments at Bombay harbour. It exposed real face of British imperialism by strike against the discriminatory policy of British regarding pays, food, status ,racial or any kind of racial discrimination. This particular incident proved to be a major breakthough in the history of the Indian freedom struggle:
- While the mutiny broke within the organised order of the British defenses, it also gave fire to the issue of racial and ethnic discrimination.
- The Mutiny broke at such a critical time that acted as a spark to the sentiments of the masses as well as Indians serving the British.
- Naval mutiny was one of those rarest incident where a part of the defense forces (navy) and the civilian population joined in the agitation against the British rule and exploitation. Thus, the call for strike and the subsequent violence rapidly caught fire and spread to the local populace.
- The role of Indian leadership in controlling the mutiny proved that the control of the Indian politics had finally shifted from the English to the Indian hands.
These factors were a direct hint that proved that the days of the British were over in India.
8: What were the major political, economic and social development in the world which motivated the anti-colonial struggle in India?
A number of events and developments in the world motivated the anti-colonial struggle in India:
- German and Italian Unificationinspired the minds of the Indians to unite as a nation. Though the reign of the English had not manifest itself in the full form, the ideas manifested through these international events remained alive in the memory of many.
- World War-Iwas another important event that triggered a chain in the Indian polity. It led to the rapid growth of industries, and also contributed to the national freedom struggle. The treatment of Turkey by the victor nations, motivated the Khilafat movement and subsequently the Non-Cooperation movement. World War I also gave new ideas to the revolutionaries in India.
- World War II was an important event in the history of the world as well as India. English dragged India into the world war. This caused a continuous exchange of ideas between the freedom fighters and the world. The adventures of the Azad Hind Fauj, became a source of inspiration for generations. This period also became a time of several political debate on the nature of struggle that India should launch against the colonial power.
- The rise of USAas a major power in the international politics, and displacement of the Britain as the ‘Workshop of the World’ had many repercussions for India. With the coming of the USA as one of the important powers, the anti-colonial propaganda in India, and the world, gained great strength.
- The era of Decolonisationalso inspired the Indian masses to further the drive against colonialism. The period of 1940s witnessed a growing crusade against colonialism.
- Economic Factors–
- Great Economic Recessionwas a major blow to the international system. Not only it lead to dismantling of the international economic order, but it also exposed the vulnerable nature of the colonial powers. this period witnessed rapid growth of industries in India.
- Role of Indian Expatriateslies in transmitting the message of freedom and rights. Persons like Dadabhai Naoroji championed the cause of India, and inspired the generations of early leadership in India.
- Rise of Japan, US and Other Powersgave an opportunity to Indians to increase international engagements with the rest of the world, and shrink the dependence on the English. A number of international groups emerged to advocate for the cause of India’s freedom.
- French Revolutionhas long been seen as the source of revolutionary ideas. The ideas of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity became the main principles on the basis of which the freedom struggle was fought.
- Western Educationplayed an instrumental role in arousing the nationalist sentiments of the masses.
- Communist Movementwas an important source of revolutionary ideas. Communism carried a message of freedom and anti-colonialism, and thus, became particularly attractive to the generations of communist leaders.
- Home Rule Movement of Irelandalso inspired the anti-colonial freedom struggle in India.
9: What were the events that led to the Suez Crisis in 1956? How did it deal a final blow to Britain’s self-image as a world power?
In 1956, Egypt decided to nationalize the Suez Canal. However, it posed a threat to the commercial interest of the British, French and Israel. They decided to use force to maintain their interest. Egypt was a non-aligned country and needed significant aid. But she was not able to secure it from any of the major powers. Thus, the plan to nationalize the Suez canal was proposed. Earlier, Suez Canal was under a French Company, which had a right to operate it for 99 years. However, Egyptian army took over the control of the canal.
Britain decided to use military action against Egypt. But it was opposed by the USA. Thus, Britain, France and Israel decided to conspire against Egypt. On October 29, 1956, Israel invaded Sinai in Egypt. In response, UK and France threatened the conflicting parties to intervene, if Egypt and Israel did not withdraw from the canal region. Britain-France arrived on November 5, 1956.
However, Britain and France were countered by the US and USSR. By November 6, 1956 the crisis was over, and UN peacekeeping forces were deployed in Suez Canal. Britain and France had to face a diplomatic and military setback. Suez canal crisis added to the Soviet popularity in the Arab region.
10: The New Economic Policy – 1921 of Lenin had influenced the policies adopted by India soon after independence. Evaluate.
The New Economic Policy of Lenin was adopted to reshape the Soviet economy, and transform it on the lines of a socialist model. The policy, in a long term, influenced the policies adopted by India after independence.
- On the model of land reforms and commune system, Indian policy makers went for the massive land reforms project, and dismantling of the zamindari system. Also, the reforms of land reforms and tenancy rights reforms could be traced from the reforms introduced in the Lenin’s New Economic Policy.
- At the industrial front, the reforms of the independent Indian state had a close appearance to that of the Soviet Union. Through state ownership of industries and a planned economic model, Indian economy made advances into the industrial world. Thus, the policies that made Soviet one of the major powers in the world, also worked for the Indian economy.
- The New Economic Policy worked to save Soviet Economy from the ravages of the war communism. A similar effect of the policy took place for India, where the economy was suffering due to partition and underdeveloped industries.
11: How does patriarchy impact the position of the middle class working women in India?
Patriarchy refers to the domination of the men over the society and it’s resources. In the modern, though women are an active participant in the workforce, they face restrictions and hardships due to a patriarchal model of society.
- It has been observed that due to the patriarchal set up of the society, the labour of the women is under-valued and under-paid. Generally, women are allotted only the low paying and less-valued jobs.
- Under the patriarchal model, middle class women are forced to perform dual responsibility of work as well as home. Even when the middle class women are allowed to work professionally, they are expected to perform the household chores and the functions of caring and nurturing, without any compromise. This puts an additional burden on the working women.
- Patriarchy also creates several stereotypes which place additional burdens and restrictions on women, in terms of mobility and social life. Middle class women are often forced to comprise with their professional life.
- The life of a middle class women is linked inextricably with her husband/family, such that, it becomes an impediment to the growth and development of their professional life.
- finally, the labour of the women is not recognised as income, and is often treated as an additional income only. Thus, the concept of a women as the bread-winner has been unable to find it’s place in the society.
12: Why do some of the most prosperous regions in India have an adverse sex ratio for women? Give your arguments.
While there is no direct reason for prosperous regions to have an adverse sex ratio, there does exist a number of socio-cultural reasons:
- One of the main reasons is the socio-cultural discrimination faced by the female sex. While there is an economic advancement in a particular region, a similar advancement in socio-cultural sphere lags behind. Thus, many families in the prosperous regions continue to practice socio-cultural discrimination against women, which often translate into sex-preference of male child.
- An economic reason for adverse sex ratio in the prosperous regions could be the high level of working male migration into the regions of economic prosperity. India, particularly, being a male-dominated society has a majority of workers as males. Thus, the inflow of large number of male workers render the region with a highly adverse sex ratio.
- Widespread availability of technology and modern means of diagnostics could be another reason of lower sex ratio. Under the framework of patriarchy, and the associated social evils there are a number of restrictions and obstacles for women that create long-term hurdles for a healthy development of the society, in general, and women in particular.
13. The life cycle of a joint family depends on economic factors rather than social values. Discuss
Joint families are a peculiar characteristic of the Indian society. Though the practices and traditions of such societies are largely governed by the socio-cultural norms, in practice, the life cycle of the joint families depends upon economic factors.
- Due to the comparatively larger size of the joint family, there is an additional burden on the earning members, upon which the food and living habits of the family depends.
- The performance of the social and cultural practices are often decided by the economic conditions of the family. Thus, a prosperous family can afford to undertake ceremonial practices, while the poorer ones are forced to adjust to the needs of the time.
- The impact of globalisation has affected the joint families by changing their tastes and preferences. Today, people aspire to follow tastes and practices that are reflected in the media, and thus often neglect the values and practices of the joint families.
- However, the social values are still an important paradigm guiding the life cycle of the joint families. The kinship network and social obligations often dominate the relationships and social behaviour and choices of the people.
14: Discuss the various economic and socio-cultural forces that are driving increasing feminization of agriculture in India.
A trend towards an increasing feminization of agriculture in India might be taking place because:
- Agriculture, in India, is generally labour-intensive and uses obsolete technology. Since most of the agricultural families are poor, the participation of women is a common sight. While men undertake the tasks of visiting the market or urban centers for other jobs, women shoulder the task of farming and threshing.
- With greater number of State sponsored welfare programmes, male members are enrolled for state-aided activities. As a result, the task of farming falls upon the women members of the family.
- Due to increasing urbanisation and industrialisation near the villages, the male members hand-over the responsibility of farming to women and start working at the industrial centers for better pay. This causes an increase in the women worker in agriculture.
- Further, in India, women have a relatively lower level of education and training as compared to men. Thus, there are a lesser number of employment opportunities available to them. Forced with no other option, women have to work in unskilled jobs, like agriculture and manual labour.
15: How do the Indian debates on secularism differ from the debates in the West?
The concept of secularism originated in the West, to refer to the separation of the religion and the state. However, the concept of secularism has also been present in the Indian culture and Constitution, in a different and broader way:
- Secularism in West stands for a complete separation of the state and religion. In India, on the other hand, State and religion are not compartmentalised. Rather, state is seen as the protector and regulator of various religious communities.
- The concept of Secularism in West has been evolved in a temporal sense, that is, out of the influence of the religion. But, in India, the concept of secularism is often entwined with that of religion, in the form of concepts like- ‘universalism’ and ‘sarvadharma sambhav’.
- Since there is a deep inter-linkage between religion and culture in India, it is hard to define secularism, on lines similar to the West. Secularism, in India, is thus defined in terms of Rights of the Individual and the community.
- The concept of secularism, as understood in India, does not stop the state from managing and regulating the affairs of the religious groups. The Constitution of India, itself, provides for the rights of the religious communities in relation to the individuals, other communities and the state itself.
Thus, there is a major difference in the understanding of the secularism in the West and in India.
16: Most of the unusual climate happenings are explained as an outcome of the El-Nino effect. Do you agree?
A warming of the ocean surface off the western coast of South America that occurs every 2 to 7 years ,when upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water does not occur,is called EL-NINO.
EFFECTS OF EL-NINO:
- El Nino can have impacts on weather at various locations around the globe. Off the east coast of southern Africa, drought conditions often occur. In countries such as Zimbabwe, the effects of drought can be devastating. In 2002, a moderate El Nino unexpectedly wrecked the monsoon and produced a massive drought in India.
- The clouds and rain associated with warm ocean waters also shift toward the east. Thus, rains which normally would fall over the tropical rain forests of Indonesia start falling over the deserts of Peru, causing forest fires and drought in the western Pacific and flooding in South America.
- Sometimes El-Nino effect support monsoon and lead to above average rainfall. In 1997, even before the monsoon began, waters of the equatorial Pacific Ocean had warmed sharply, leading to one of the most powerful El Nino events in the last century. As such a phenomenon typically suppresses monsoon rains over India, a severe drought was widely predicted. As it turned out, the monsoon that year ended with above average rains.
- It causes die-offs of plankton and fish and affects Pacific jet stream winds, altering storm tracks and creating unusual weather patterns in various parts of the world.
17: Why are the world’s fold mountain systems located along the margins of continents? Bring out the association between the global distribution of fold mountains and the earthquakes and volcanoes.
Fold mountains are formed when two plates move towards each other (a compressional plate margin). This can happen when two continental plates move towards each other or a continental and an oceanic plate. The movement of the two plates forces sedimentary rocks upwards into a series of folds. Fold mountains are usually formed from sedimentary rocks and are usually found along the edges of continents. This is because the thickest deposits of sedimentary rock generally accumulate along the edges of continents.
Most known volcanic activity and the earthquakes occur along converging plate margins and mid oceanic ridges where the rising limbs of convention currents within the earth’s mantle meet.There is a strikingly close agreement between volcanic and earthquake zones of the earth which indicates that there is a definite relationship between these two groups of phenomena.Thelocation of volcanoes on the steep continental borders near great ocean deeps and in or near youthful fold mountains correlates them definitely with zones of weakness in the earth’s crust.
18: Explain the formation of thousands of islands in Indonesian and Philippines archipelago.
A group of island or an island arc can be of volcanic origin, which is formed along the convergent margin of two oceanic plates. The origin of thousands of islands of Indonesia and Philippines archipelagos can be explained on the same line.
Ocean-ocean convergence or the Island arc convergence occurs when the oceanic plate is plunged into another oceanic plate away from the continents. As a result of collision, the plate with greater density plunges beneath to form a trench. As the ocean floor crust loaded with sediments subducts, the rocks on the continental side of the trench become metamorphosed under high pressure and temperature. After reaching a depth of 100 km, plates melt causing an upward movements of magma. A continuous piling of rocks raises them above the ocean crust and ultimately exposes them to form island arcs.
In case of Indonesia and Philippines, island arcs are formed along the convergent boundary of Indian ocean and pacific ocean.
19: Tropical cyclones are largely confined to South China Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mexico. Why?
The frequency of cyclones over Northwest Pacific is quite high (about 35 % of the global annual average) which influences the Bay of Bengal also. The South China sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mexico are tropical cyclone prone areas, the reason behind it are as follows :-
- Average warm temperature throughout the year (proximity to equator) keeps ocean temperature high, which is a necessary phenomenon for formation of cyclone.
- The variation in air pressure and moisture plays important role in making tropical cyclone in these areas.
- The warm ocean current plays important role in making these regions prone to tropical cyclones.
20: Bring out the relationship between the shrinking Himalayan glaciers and the symptoms of climate change in the Indian sub continent.
The symptoms of climate change in Indian sub-continent has appeared clearly in late Nineteenth century after the revelation through various research report and analysis. One of the major reason behind climate change in Indian peninsula is shrinking Himalayan glaciers. The relationship between the shrinking Himalayan glaciers and the symptoms of climate change can be brought out through following interpretation :-
- The Shrinking glacier as an increased seasonal melt coupled with rains are bringing more intense floods and irregular flow of water in glacier rivers is bringing drought condition.
- Because of melting of ice the Sea level is rising at around 3.5 mm per yearand the frequency of tropical cyclones is predicted to increase in recent future as a result of ice melting.
- The irregular rainfall pattern and monsoonal rainfall has been observed in recent years which is due to glacier shrinking.
- The biodiversity in Himalayan drainage and Himalayan region has been disturbed and became vulnerable for extinction.
21: Whereas the British planters had developed tea gardens all along the Shivaliks and Lesser Himalayas from Assam to Himachal Pradesh, in effect they did not succeed beyond the Darjeeling area. Explain.
succeed beyond the Darjeeling area. Explain Chinese varieties of tea were first introduced into India by the British in an attempt to brea k Chinese monopoly on tea. The British using Chinese seeds, and Chinese planting and cultivating techniques, launched a tea industry by offering land in Assam to any European who agreed to cultivate tea for export. British experimented tea plantation in hilly terrains of India with equivalent climate. Favourable conditions for tea plantation are : helatively low temperature, Deep clayey soil permitting terrace farming, High rainfall of 150-250 cm with high drained land and low
gradient. The combination of all these factors are present in areas surrounding Darjeeling, as a result of which this region has been more successful in tea cultivation. A part from this, presence of cheap labour from the adjoining regions of Bihar and Bengal also made Darjeeling g more suitable for tea cultivation.
While cool climate and low gradient were also available in Shivaliks and lesser Himalayas but absence of deep clayey soil and year round rains, doesn’t allow the tea plantation to succeed in these areas. Moreover, for tea cultivation, slopes should not be steep but it should be gentle. But, the geological composition of Shivalik Himalayas are steep in comparison to those in eastern and north-eastern region. Thus, the location inhibited the growth of tea cultivation as dominant agricultural practices in these areas.
22: Why did the Green Revolution in India virtually by-pass the eastern region despite fertile soil and good availability of water?
Green revolution in India has not been possible with fertile soil and good availability of water only but with various other factors, which were absent in Eastern region of the country. The factors can be accumulated as following :
- Lack of Canal and channelized Irrigation :- Absence of this has resulted into unavailability of water in required areas as the reason that it depends on rainfall only.
- Lack of Technology :- It leads to remain the agriculture in primitive mode and made the per hectare production low.
- Agricultural Pattern :- The eastern region preferred Rice and other crop production while green revolution was most successful in Wheat.
- Lack of Awareness :- The lack awareness among the farmers of the region made them unaware of scientific methods like- using HYV seeds and chemicals
- Lack of Appropriate govt. policy :- The inadequate policy and inappropriate governmental support kept farmers away from the collection of required finance for adopting scientific method.
23: Account for the change in the spatial pattern of the Iron and Steel industry in the world. 10 Marks
Earlier the iron and steel industries were located near mines that required for production of steel but with the advancement of transport network and modern technology the pattern of location of this industry has changed. The location of iron and steel industry is now decided by availability or presence of following factors :-
- 1 The industry is shifting towards the market, where the demand of steel is more, i.e- near urban centre
- 2 The industry is being shifted towards the location, which is a transport hub, i.e towards international harbor so that the produced steel can be exported or raw material can be imported
- 3 The most significant change in pattern of location of this industry is “it being shifted towards the industrial hub so that the produced steel could be consumed by other industries like automobile and heavy engineering at same place.
24: Critically Evaluate the various resources of the oceans which can be harnessed to meet the resource crisis of the world. 10 Marks
Ocean have emerged as next big thing in exploitation of resources. Few resources which can be harnessed to tide over resource crisis in the world are
- Manganese nodules found at the sea floor which can be used for extraction of useful minerals
- Smokers or thermal vents at sea floor can be used to harness important mineral like Sulphur
- Deep sea E&P for hydrocarbon resources
- Deep sea fishing to aid fishing industry
- Wave and tidal energy through technology to generate power
However these resource exploitation is full of risk, mg nodules extraction from sea floor is very damging to the sea floor and unique ecosystem developed at the sea floor. Moreover on board basic refining of nodules would pollute sea and effect marine life. Smokers support unique ecosystem, disturbing them would lead to collapse of this ecosystem. Deep sea E&P activities are fraught with risk of oil spill.
UN has formed international body to regulate international sea mining activities however the practice needs through sustainability study to be viable ecologically.
25: How does India see its place in the economic space of rising natural resource rich Africa? 10 Marks
The natural resource-rich geostrategic location of Africa has made it a location of interest to the countries across the world. Many of the developed countries, that are resource scarce, have been putting up the efforts to tap upon the vast resource wealth of Africa. India, also, has been making political and economic strides to fulfil her interest through the opportunities available in Africa. However, the fulfilment of the Indian interest faces a number of challenges from the developing and developed countries of the world. While India has made a significant presence in Africa, India still lag behind the USA, China and the European Union in general. On the contrary, there are a number of developments which position India at a higher pedestal:
- There is a significant presence of the Indian diaspora in the African continent, particularly in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Mauritius. There is a considerable level of Indian entrepreneurship in African continent.
- There is also a growing agricultural presence of Indians in Liberia.
- Economic ties have been made between African Union Trade Union (AUTU) and India in terms of custom duties and other measures, including free trade between India and Africa.
- Further, through a number of social welfare programmes and grant-in-aid measures, Indian state has been extending humanitarian support to the African countries, thus extending it’s soft power among the African countries. As a result of this, India has been able to create a good image in the African nations, and in groups like IBSA and BRICS.