1.1 Meaning, scope and development of Anthropology.·       Define Anthropology. Describe the major branches of Anthropology elaborating on any one branch.(2017)

·       Critically examine the role of anthropology in Contemporary India. (15Marks 2014)


1.2 Relationships with other disciplines: Social Sciences, Behavioral Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences & Humanities.·       Write notes on the following in about 150 words each: 10X5=50
(a) The Relevance of Anthropology
(b) Difference between Science and Magic

·       Major subdivisions of Anthropology (10Marks 2014)

·       How do you situate Anthropology in Social Sciences? (10Marks 2013)


1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance:

Social- cultural Anthropology.

Biological Anthropology.

Archaeological Anthropology.

Linguistic Anthropology.

·       Give an account of the field methods used in the study of Archaeological Anthropology. 15 marks(2018)

·       Write notes on the following in about 150 words each:(2016)

a) Differences between Social Anthropology and Sociology.

·       Archaeological Anthropology (10Marks 2015), * Archaeological Anthropology (. – 1992)

·       Linguistic Anthropology (10Marks 2013), * Linguistic Anthropology (. 1990)

·       Social & Cultural Anthropology (. 1994)

·       Applied Anthropology (. 1990)

·       Theme of Linguistic Anthropology (. 1989)

·       New Physical Anthropology (. 1989)



1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man:
a) Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.
b) Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre- Darwinian, Darwinian and Post- Darwinian).
c) Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of Evolutionary biology (Doll’s Rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, Parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).
·       Write notes on the following in about 150 words each: 10X5=50(2018)
(a) Gordon Childe’s Theory of Cultural Evolution
(b) Advanced Molecular Anthropology Techniques

·        Explain the biological changes that made human beings capable of making culture. 20 marks(2018)

·       Elucidate the biological and cultural factors in Human evolution.(2016)

·       Elucidate Biological & cultural factors in Human Evolution. (15Marks 2015)

·       Critically examine the Darwin’s theory of evolution in understanding Evolution. (15Marks 2015)

·       Biological Evolution of early man (. – 1997)

·       How Darwinism differs from the synthetic theory of organic evolution? (. -1994)

·       What is Synthetic Theory of Evolution? Discuss how this theory helps us in understanding the evolutionary mechanism. (.. 1993)

·       Synthetic theory of evolution (. – 1992)

·       What is organic evolution? Give evidences for human evolution. (.-1992)

·       What is Organic Evolution? Describe the theories of organic evolution. (.-1991)

·       Theory of organic evolution (. – 1985)

·       Micro evolution (. – 1990)

·       Elucidate the theory of Evolution as put forward by Lamark.

·       Give a critical account of the processes of organic evolution and explain how they contribute to speciation. (LQ – 1988)

·       Biological evolution and concept of new Physical Anthropology (. -1986)

·       Lamarckism & Darwinism (. – 1986)


1.5 Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.·       What do you understand by the National Character Study? Illustrate the concept. 15 marks(2018)

·       Bring out the comparative anatomical features of man and apes. Discuss their evolutionary significance.(2017)

·       Explain the skeletal changes due to erect posture and their implications.(2016)

·       Elucidate the skeletal differences between humans and chimpanzees. (15Marks 2014)

·       Role of Primatology in Anthropological studies. (10Marks 2013)

·       Discuss the anatomical changes that occurred in Man due to erect posture. (. -1998)

·       Discuss primate locomotion with special reference to adaptation to arboreal life. (. – 1996)

·       Adaptive radiation in primates (. – 1995)

·       Primate (. – 1994)

·       Narrate with reasons man’s place in primate order (. – 1994)

·       Discuss the similarities and differences between Chimpanzee & Man in salient physical and anatomical characteristics. (. – 1993)

·       Anthropoid Apes (. – 1992), * Anthropoid apes (. – 1987)

·       What are the characteristic physical features of the primates?

·       Show the position of man among the other primates in a tabular form. (. -1992)

·       Why is Man a primate? Describe the place of Man in the animal kingdom. (. -1991)

·       Why is man included in the Primate Order? Discuss in detail. (. – 1989)

·       Characters of Primates (. – 1988)

·       Discuss the evolution of primates with special reference to dentition – (. – 1986)

·       What are the different fossil primates of the Palaeocene & Eocene times?

·       Discuss critically the contribution of these primates to human origin ? (. – 1986)

·       Give a brief account of the distribution and physical features of the Asiatic Anthropoid apes. (. – 1985)


1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following:

Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.

Homo erectus: Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis).

Neanderthal Man- La-Chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).

Rhodesian man.

Homo sapiens — Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.

·        Describe the culture related to homo erectus. 15 marks(2018)

·       Write short notes of 150 words on  Rhodesian Man(2016)

·       Describe the Salient characteristics & Geographical distribution of Homo erectus. (20Marks 2015)

·       Asian Homo erectus (10Marks 2014)

·       Comment briefly on the phylogenetic position of Australopithecines (10Marks 2012)

·       Neanderthal Man (15 Marks – 2011)

·       Describe major skeletal similarities & differences between Home Erectus & Homo Sapiens (30 Marks – 2011)

·       Culture of Homo erectus (15 Marks – 2010)

·       Homo Habilis (20 Marks – 2009)

·       Distinguish between major categories of Australopithecines. How are Australopithecines different from Apes? (30 Marks – 2009)

·       Homo sapiens sapiens. (-1996)

·       Discuss the geographic distribution and taxonomic issues concerning early hominids. Elucidate evidence in support of alternative positions.( -1996)

·       Discuss the single source Vs multiple sources of the origin of Homo sapiens. Which one of the two hypotheses do you think is more tenable? Give reasons in support of your answer ( – 1995

·       Homoerectus finds from Africa. ( – 1995) (– 1986)

·       Homo sapiens – Neanderthalensis ( – 1994)

·       Compare the fossil remains of progressive and ‘classic’ Neanderthal men for anatomical characteristics and spatial distribution. Examine Their phylogenetic position in human evolution. ( – 1993)

·       Discuss the origin of Australopithecines. Describe their spatial distribution and physical features. , (– 1990)

·       Morphological characters of Homo erectus (. – 1989)

·       Write what you know about Homo sapiens and Neanderthalensis. (. – 1989)

·       Discuss the spatial distribution, physical features, cultural status and origin of Australopithecines (. – 1987)

·       What do you understand by the term Homo sapiens’? Give an account of the distribution and physical features of the earliest fossil homosapiens. (. -1985)


1.8 1. Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology: Relative and Absolute Dating methods. 2. cultural Evolution- Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:





Copper-Bronze Age

Iron Age

·       Write notes on the following in about 150 words each: 10X5=50
Town Planning of Harappan Culture

·       What are dating methods? Discuss one absolute method and one relative methods in detail.(2017)

·       Salient features of Mesolithic culture(2017)

·       Critically examine the Stewardian view of neo-evolutionism.(2017)

·        Short notes on Neolithic Cultures of India(2016)

·       Give an account of the consequences of food production of Neolithic culture. 15 m(2018)

·       Describe the absolute dating methods in Archaeology,
Highlighting the importance of each method. (15Marks 2014)

·       Carbon-14 method of dating (10Marks 2013)

·       Problems of dating in Prehistoric Archaeology (. – 1997)

·       Radiometric methods of dating fossils (. – 1996)

·       Chronometric dating methods (. – 1995)

·       Paleolithic Culture (10Marks 2015)

·       Describe the Neolithic culture of India. (15Marks 2014)

·       Why is the Neolithic phase of culture ‘in Europe called revolution? Describe its distinctive features. (. – 1995)

·       Delineate the salient features of Chalcoloithic cultures.(2016)

2.1 The Nature of Culture: The concept and characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-à-vis cultural Relativism·       Short notes on Cultural Relativism(2016)

·       Is culture unique to human beings? Critically examine. (15Marks 2014)

·       Why the concept of Culture Relativism been so dear to Anthropologists? (20Marks 2013)

·       Bring out the distinguishing features of culture and civilization. (15Marks 2013)

·       Cultural relativism and subsequent violation of Human rights?(15 Marks — 2010),
.*Cultural Relativism (. -1995, 1987)

·       Components of culture vast and varied”. Explain this statement. (.. 2002)

·       Culture trait and culture complex (. – 1999)

·       Super organic view of culture (. – 1998)

·       Pattern of culture (.-1998)

·       Acculturation and Contra – acculturation (. -1997)

·       What do you understand by cultural relativistic approach & ethnocentric approach in the study of culture” Discuss the logical premises of cultural relativistic approach. (. – 1997)

·       Culture as construct or reality (. -1989)

·       How does culture differ from civilization? Describe the attributes of Culture? (. -1987)


2.2 The Nature of Society: Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institutions; Social groups; and Social stratification.·       Define ethnography and present a brief history of ethnographic studies. 20 marks(2018)

·       Society and culture (10Marks 2015)

·       Incest Taboos (10Marks 2015)

·       Define Status & Role. Distinguish between Ascribed and Achieved Status. (15Marks 2014)

·       What is the basis of social stratification? Discuss with examples (20Marks 2012)

·       Explain the concept of status and role in anthropology (20Marks 2012)

·       Write a detailed note on polyandrous societies, citing Indian examples (30 Marks-2009)

·       Social stratification (. – 2000)

·       Social structure (. – 1999)

2.3 Marriage: Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Types of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).·       Discuss the Different forms of preferential marriage with suitable examples from(2017)

·       Define marriage & describe the various types of marriages in human societies. (15Marks 2014)

·       Where do you situate ‘live-in relationship’ within the institution of marriage? (15Marks 2013)

·       Ways of acquiring a spouse in simpler societies (12Marks 2012)

·       How does taboo serve as a means of social control?(15Marks 2013) * Incest Taboo (. – 2006)

·       Describe various ways of getting mate in Primitive Society. Give examples from Indian context.(.-1994)

·       Matrilineal society (. -1991)

·       Describe the problems of Universal definition of marriage. (. – 1991)

·       Describe the different forms of marriage among the tribal people of India. (. – 1991)

·       Define Marriage. Describe its different forms with suitable examples as prevalent among the tribal people of India. Point out the Functions of marriage. (. – 1989)

·       What are incest regulations? Bring out their socio-cultural functions in the context of stability in the institutions of marriage, family and kinship.(.. 1988)

·       What are various forms of preferential mating? Explain with Indian examples. (. – 1985)

2.4 Family: Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.·       Discuss the impact of urbanization and feminist movements on family in India.(2016)

·       Define family and critically examine Universality of Family. (15Marks 2015)

·       Discuss the impact of urbanization and feminist movement on family. (20Marks 2013)

·       Is family a social institution? (12Marks 2012)

·       What do you understand by Feminist movements? Discuss their impact on family. (. – 2002)

·       Critically comment on the forces and factors that have brought about changes in the family structure in recent times (. – 1999)

·       Do you agree with the view that family is a ‘universal association’? Critically examine the above statement. (. -1998)

·       Examine family both as a social group and as an institution. Describe the functions of family and household, Indicating there in the recent changes. (. -1996)

·       Is family a Universal Social group? Critically examine this with examples. (. – 1993)

·       Give a comparative account of different types of family in the tribes of India. Illustrate your answer with suitable examples. (. – 1990)

·       Universality of family (. – 1988)

·       Give a comparative account of different types of family in tribal & non-tribal societies of India.(.1987)

·       What are the major functions of the family? Indicate the recent changes that have taken place in its types and functions with special reference to India. (. – 1985)


2.5.Kinship: Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral, Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation; Descent and Alliance.·        Write notes on the following in about 150 words each: 10X5=50

Kinship Terminology(2018)

·       Elucidate the determinants of kinship terminology.(2017)

·       Bilincal and bilateral descents.(2017)

·       Short notes on Lineage and Clan(2016)

·       Describes the cardinal  points of descent and alliance  theories.(2016)

·        Double Descent (10Marks 2014)

·       Various types of descent (10Marks 2013) (. – 2008)

·       Describe types of kinship groups formed on the basis of different principles(20Marks 2012)

·       What factors are responsible for bringing about variation in residence of different societies? Explain how kinship influences man’s social life. (30 Marks — 2010)

·       Segmentary lineage and territoriality (15 Marks – 2010)

·       Define kinship & throw light on ‘functional importance’ of kinship in Anthro. (. – 2003)

·       Explain the salient features of Descent and Alliance theories.

·       Discuss their relevance to the analysis and understanding of social structure (. – 2001)

·       Discuss the distinguishing features of unilineal, bilineal and bilateral kin groups with

·       Suitable examples in support of your answer. (. -1997)

·       What is Kinship System? Describe the changing roles of the system in the context of westernization in India. (. – 1995)

·       Kinship terms and Kinship behavior (. – 1994)

·       What is kinship system? Discuss its relevance in understanding the social structure of society. (  1991)

·       Difference between clan and lineage in primitive society (. -1986)


3. Economic organization: Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), incept  communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.·       Write the characteristics of hunting and gathering economy. 15 marks(2018)

·        With the help of appropriate example, explain the various forms of exchange system.(2017)

·       Discuss the principles governing production, distribution and exchange in simple societies.(2016)

·       Horticulture (10Marks 2015)

·       Critically examine the Formalists &Substantivists views on the applicability of Economic laws in the study of Primitive societies. (20Marks 2015)

·       Discuss the impact of globalization on tribal economy (20Marks 2013)

·       Differentiate between Economics and Economic Anthropology (10Marks 2013)

·       Discuss different modes of Exchanges in simple societies with examples (30Marks 2011)

·       Critically examine the debate between Formalists &Substantivists (30Marks 2011)

·       What stage is known as incipient stage of food production? Point out major features of this cultural stage. Illustrate your answer with suitable examples from a specific area in the old world.(30 Marks 2010)

·       Trade & barter (. -2005)

·       Critically discuss the formalist and substantivist approaches in the context of economic anthropology. (. – 2005)

·       Ceremonial Exchange (. – 2004)

·       Kula Ring (. -2003)

·       Primitive economic organization has several peculiar features relating to the production, consumption, distribution and exchange.” Discuss above statement by providing appropriate illustrations.(.-2003)

·       Delineate the meaning and scope of economic anthropology and discuss the principles that govern production, distribution and consumption in hunting and gathering communities. (. – 1997)

·       Define market. Discuss the nature and role of markets in tribal communities. (. -1992)

·       Discuss the meaning & scope of ‘economic anthropology’. (. – 1990)

·       Discuss the role of reciprocity & redistribution in tribal economy with examples. (. – 1988)


4. Political organization and Social Control: Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple societies.·       How does customary law function in the tribal society? Discuss its different sources. 15 marks(2018)

·       Mention the characteristics features of band with suitable examples.(2017)

·       discuss different social control mechanisms in simple societies.(2016)

·       Differentiate between State and Stateless Societies. (10Marks 2014)

·       Discuss the nature of Law and Justice in simple societies citing suitable examples. (20Marks 2014)

·       Band and tribal societies (12Marks 2012)

·       Chiefdom in tribal society (20 Marks — 2009)

·       Discuss mechanisms of social control in simple societies citing suitable examples. (. – 2007)

·       Describe the evolution of Political Systems (. – 2006)

·       ‘Primitive Society is governed by the traditional customary law’. Do you agree with this statement? Explain. (. – 1998)

·       Differentiate between centralized political systems and stateless political Systems and state how law & justice are administered in stateless societies. (. -1996)

·       Differentiate between state & stateless political systems. Do you think that a stateless political system can function in modern societies? (.-1994)

·       Describe the means of social control in simpler societies and compare the legal system of simple and complex societies. (. – 1993)

·       Explain the meaning and scope of political anthropology. Describe how law and justice are maintained in simpler societies.(.-1991)

·       Law & Justice in simple societies. (. -1987)

·       How is law administered in primitive societies? Give suitable examples. (. – 1985)

·       Explain the meaning & scope of political anthropology. Describe how law and order are being maintained in the so-called preliterate societies. (. – 1989)


5.Religion: Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico- religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).·        Write notes on the following in about 150 words each: 10X5=50
Ways of acquiring mate in Tribal Society(2018)

·        Discuss the different traditional forms of religion in tribal societies.(2017)

·       Difference between religion and magic.(2017)

·       Short notes on Totemism(2016)

·       critically examine different Anthropological approaches to Religion.(2016)

·       How do you relate the concepts of ‘Sacred’ and ‘Profane’ in Durkheim’s theory of Religion with a focus on the role of Totem? (15Marks 2015)

·       Totemism (10Marks 2013)

·       Distinguish between religion, magic and science (20Marks 2013)

·       Explain various Anthropological approaches to study Religion (30Marks 2011)

·       How anthropologists define Religion? Describe various forms of religion with examples. (. – 2007)

·       Shamanism (. – 2007)

·       “Witchcraft accusation is the result of strained interpersonal relations” – Explain (. – 2005)

·       Distinguish between magic and religion. Give suitable examples. (. – 2004)

·       Discuss some of the characteristic features of tribal religions in India and state how far they have changed in recent times. (. – 1999)

·       Witchcraft and Sorcery (. -1998)

·       Why have religion and magic become stable features of a society?

·       What role do the religious functionaries play in simple and non-literate societies? (. .1996)

·       Discuss the role of totemism in primitive religion, according to Durkheim. (. – 1994)

·       Highlight the significance of religious practices in Tribal communities of India. (. – 1993)

·       Religion and Magic (. – 1992)

·       What is religion? Discuss Tylor’s Theory of Origin of religion. —. (. -1991)

·       Describe the Origin of religion. Distinguish between religion and magic. (. – 1990)

·       What do you mean by Totemism? Discuss the role of totemism in the tribal life of India. (. – 1989)

·       Distinguish between religion and magic. Critically examine the different theories of religion and comment on their relevance today.(. -1987)

·       Differences between primitive religion and world religion (. -1986)

·       How do you explain the origin and evolution of religion? How does religion continue to function in human society? (. – 1985)

Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)·       How did Morgan explain the Evolution of Marriage, Family and Socio-Political organization & how did other Evolutionists disagree with his explanation? (20Marks 2015)

·       How do Diffusionism & Evolutionism differ as explanations of Culture change? (15Marks 2015)

·       Point out the differences in the concepts of Classical Evolutionism and neo-evolutionism in socio-cultural anthropology. Which stage of Prehistoric culture is known as cultural evolution and why? (30 Marks — 2010)

·       Universal Culture Evolution (. – 2002)

·       Classical evolutionism (. – 1997)

·       How do the approaches of the 19th century Evolutionists differ from those of the Neo-Evolutionists? Discuss (. – 1993)

·       “Evolution is biological & socio-cultural” – Discuss (. – 1990)

·       19th Century evolutionism (. -1988)

·       Contributions of Morgan and Tylor in the history and linguistics? (. – 1985)

Historical particularism (Boas); Diffusionism (British, German and American)·       Historical Particularism (10Marks 2015)

·       How do Diffusionism & Evolutionism differ as explanations of Culture change? (15Marks 2015)

·       Culture area & Age area (Diffusionism) (. – 2000)

·       Define ‘culture area’. How did it help American diffusionists to understand diffusion of culture? (. – 1998)

·       Critically examine the Historical Particularistic approach of Franz Boas to the study of culture. (. -1997)

·       What was Boas’ approach of studying primitive cultures? Delineate the role of Field work and history in anthropological study (LQ – 1995)

·       Franz Boas (.-1991), Franz Boas (. -1988)


Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural- functionlism (Radcliffe-Brown)·       Basic tenets of structural-functionalism.(2017)

·       Short notes on Functionalism(2016)

·       What is functionalism? Discuss the functional approach to the understanding of Religion. (20Marks 2014)

·       In what ways is Functionalism different from Structural Functionalism? (20Marks 2013)

·       Structural-functionalism (. – 2008)

·       Describe the structural features of social life as suggested by Radcliffe Brown in his theory of social structure. (. – 2003)

·       Discuss the approaches of Radcliffe – Brown and Evans Pritchard to Comparative Methods in Anthropological Research. (. -2001)

·       What is meant by functionalism? Discuss the basic tenets of Malinowski’s functionalism? (– 1999)

·       To Radcliffe-Brown function was the contribution an institution makes to the maintenance of social structure’. Elucidate in the light of R.C. Brown’s contributions to structural functional theory. (. – 1998)

·       A.R. Radcliffe-Brown (. – 1994)

·       Discuss Malinowski’s contributions to functionalism in social anthropology. (. -1990)
Evaluate Malinowski’s contributions to functionalism (. – 1987)

·       Reexamine the views of R.C. Brown in connection with structure & function in Anthropology?(.-1989)

·       Examine Malinowski’s theory of needs and state its merits. (. -1986)

·       Write an essay on ‘Structure – function’ theory of Radcliffe – Brown. (. -1986)


Structuralism (L’evi – Strauss and E. Leach)·       How do the concepts of binary opposites and exchange figure in Levi-Strauss’ structural analysis of kinship?(2016)

·       What are the major criticisms of the theory of “Structuralism” as propounded by Claude Levi—Strauss? (30 Marks — 2009)

·       Edmond R. Leach (. – 1993)


Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora – du Bois).·       Explain Ruth Benedict’s patterns of culture.(2017)

·       Discuss the relationship between culture and personality. (. – 2008)

·       Critically discuss the contributions of Ruth Benedict to the study of culture. (. – 2004)

·       Discuss the contributions of Margaret Mead and Ralph Linton to the analysis of the relationship between culture and personality.(. -2001)

·       Discuss the contribution of Ralph Linton, Cora-Du-Bois and Abraham Kardiner in the study of personality. (. – 1999)

·       Culture- Personality (. – 1996)

·       Model Personality (Cultural personality school) (. -1992)


Neo – evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)


·       Explain the theory of ‘Neo-Evolutionism’ (60 Marks — 2009)

·       Neo-evolutionism (. – 1997)

·       What do you understand by Neo-evolutionism? Evaluate how Leslie A White’s approach is helpful in understanding cultural revolution.(. -2000)

·       What do you mean by cultural ecology’? Evaluate how Julian Steward’s particularistic
Approach is helpful in understanding multilineal evolution. (. -1998)

·       How do the approaches of the 19th century Evolutionists differ from those of the Neo-Evolutionists? Discuss (. – 1993)

·       Write an essay on neo-evolutionism and cultural ecology.(. – 1989)


Cultural materialism (Harris)·       Cultural Materialism (15 Marks 2011), 2003
Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)·       According to Geertz, how does the cock-fight reveal aspects of Balinese culture?(2016)

·       What made Geertz’s Interpretative Anthropology distinct from Turner’s Symbolic Anthropology? What does each of them mean by the terms Symbol & Symbolic? (20Marks 2015)

·       Explain the difference between ‘Emic’ & ‘Etic’ and how does the difference derive from the study of language? (10Marks 2015)

·       Bring out the contribution of Turner and Geertz in symbolic and interpretive theories in Anthropology (15Marks 2013)

·       Critically examine the contribution of anthropologists in the interpretation of Symbols (30Marks 2011)

·       Symbolism (. -2007),  Symbolism (. – 1999)

·       Symbolic Anthropology (. – 2001)


Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)·       Explain the difference between ‘Emic’ & ‘Etic’ and how does the difference derive from the study of language? (10Marks 2015)

·       Cognitive Anthropology (. – 2002)

·       What is cognitive approach? Critically examine its implications in Socio-cultural Anthropology. (. -1996)

Post- modernism in anthropology·       Explain the basic features of ‘Postmodernism’ in Anthropology. (20Marks 2015)

·       Post-modernism in anthropology (12Marks 2012)


7. Culture, language and communication: Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social context of language use.·       Critically examine that the structure and content of language are influenced by culture. 15 marks(2018)

·        Short notes on

a)Non-verbal communication.(2017)


·       State the theories regarding the origin of spoken languages in human societies both from Biological and cultural points of view. (30 Marks —2010)

8. Research methods in anthropology:

Fieldwork tradition in anthropology

Distinction between technique, method and methodology

Tools of data collection: observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, Case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.

Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.

·       How is case study method helpful in understanding a social phenomena? Explain with suitable example. 20 marks(2018)

·       Elucidate the basic characteristics of anthropological fieldwork methods.(2017)

·       Describe the evolution of Fieldwork tradition in Anthropology.(2016)

·       Field work tradition in Anthropology (10Marks 2014)

·       Field work tradition in Anthropology (15Marks 2011)

·       Discuss the different fieldwork traditions in anthropological research. (. – 1988)

·       Fieldwork traditions in Anthropology (. – 1987,1985)

·       Genealogical Method (10Marks 2014), * Genealogical method of field investigation. (. – 1994)

·       Discuss the relevance of Case Study method of data collection. (20marks 2013)

·       Relative dating methods (12Marks 2012)

·       What are the tools of data collection?

·       Discuss the advantages and limitations of participant – observations as a technique of data collection (20Marks 2012)

·       What do you understand by the following terms? (30 Marks — 2010)
(i) Systematic sampling. (ii) Stratified sampling. (iii) Multistage sampling.

·       Schedule and ‘Questionnaire’ in research methodology (20 Marks — 2009)

·       Discuss the importance of field work in anthropology and describe various tools of data collection (. – 2008)

·       Critically examine the contribution of Positivist and Non-Positivist approaches in Social Science Research (. – 2007)

·       Participatory Rapid Assessment (PRA) (. – 2004)

·       Discuss the contributions of field work in the development of anthropological concepts and theories. (. – 1999)

·       Trace the genesis and development of fieldwork in anthropological research.
Assess its importance in the development of Anthropology. (. – 1998)

·       Examine the importance of observation as a field work technique in Anthropology. Differentiate between participant & non-participant Observation and analyze the problem of objectivity in participant observation. (. -1996)

·       What are questionnaires & schedule techniques of field study? Assess their relative usefulness in anthropological studies. (. – 1995)

·       Discuss the nature and logic of anthropological field work methods. How these differ from those of other social sciences? Discuss. (. -1994)

·       Method and Methodology (. -1993)

·       Discuss the nature and method of Anthropological Fieldwork and explain its uniqueness. (. – 1993)

·       Discuss the nature and logic of anthropological field work methods. (. -1991)

·       Discuss the difference between the technique, method and methodology as employed in anthropological studies. (. – 1990)

·       Participant observation in Anthropological Fieldwork. (. – 1989)

·       How does fieldworker strike a balance between the theoretical requirements and real field situations?Describe with suitable examples. (. – 1989)

·       Distinguish between technique, method and methodology. Examine their role in anthropological studies. (. – 1987)

·       Explain the significant role of an informant in anthropological fieldwork. (. – 1986)


9.1 Human Genetics – Methods and Application: Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.·       Briefly describe the various methods used in the genetic study of man.(2017)

·       Twin method in human genetics (10Marks 2013)

·       Non-Communicable diseases (20 Marks — 2009)

·       Genetics of HLA and organ transplantation (30 Marks — 2009)

·       Anthropological relevance of population genetics (20 Marks — 2009)

·       Thrifty genotype (20 Marks — 2009)

·       Pedigree Analysis (. – 2007)

·       Genome Study (. – 2007)

·        Discuss the areas in which the knowledge of human genetics can be applied. (. – 2004)

·        Discuss the role of twins in nature – nurture problems and illustrate your answer with suitable examples (. – 1999)

·        Define twins. Describe the methods of diagnosis of twins. In what way are twins useful in the study of human genetics? (. – 1998)


9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.·        What are the legal and sub-lethal genes? Explain (20Marks 2012)

·       Discuss monogenetic & polygenetic inheritance in man with suitable examples (30Marks 2011)

·        What are the contributions of Gregor Mendel to the field of Genetics?

·       Discuss with suitable examples how Mendel’s laws of inheritance are applicable to Man? (. – 1993)

·       What are Mendel’s laws of inheritance? Describe the recent advances in human genetics. (. – 1992)

·        Describe Mendel’s laws of inheritance. What are the recent advances in human genetics and human cytogenetics? (. – 1990)

·       Laws of heredity as propounded by Mendel. (. – 1989)

·       Discuss how laws of heredity propounded by Mendel can be understood in the context of meiotic Cell division and their applications to Man. (.-1987)

·       Discuss the laws of inheritance propounded by Mendel on the basis of his classic experiments. Explain how these laws are applied in the study of human genetics (. – 1986)


9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency – mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.·        Hardy-Weinberg Law.(2017)

·       Critically discuss the Mendelian principles and their application to human populations.(2016)

·        What do you understand by Immunogenetics? Explain with suitable examples. (15Marks 2015)

·        Discuss the factors affecting gene frequencies among human populations. (20Marks 2014)

·       What do you understand by ‘Genetic Load’ in a population? How is it measured And what are the important factors that can influence it? (15Marks 2013)

·        What are the genetic effects of Consanguinity? Give examples? (20Marks 2012)

·       Conditions necessary for the operation of hardy – Weinberg law (15Marks 2011)

·       What is Balanced Genetic Polymorphism? How is it maintained in a population? (30 Marks—2010)

·       What is genetic load’ and what factors influence it? (30 Marks — 2009)

·       Inbreeding (. – 2008)

·       What do you understand by Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium? Discuss the factors that produce and redistribute variations. (. – 2008)

·       Problems of Inbreeding (– 2005)

·       Genetic polymorphism and selection (. – 2003)

·       Describe the major causes of change in gene frequency of a population (. – 2003)

·       What are the statistical methods used in Physical Anthropology? (. – 2001)

·       Sampling methods (. -2001)

·       Mutation (. – 1998)

·       Discuss the concept of Mendelian Population’ and its application in the study of anthropogenetic variations in India. (. – 1997)

·        Discuss the concepts of balanced po1ymorphism & relaxed selection with special reference to malaria dependent polymorphism in Man. (. -1994)

·       Inbreeding and cross breeding (. -1993)

·        Is inbreeding different from consanguinity? Give an account of inbreeding studies in
India and comment on their social relevance. (. – 1987)

·       Discuss role of genetic drift, mutation and migration as the causes of variation. (. -1985)

·       Define Genetic polymorphism. Give details of its types with suitable examples. (15Marks 2015)

·       Genetic Polymorphism (15Marks 2011) (. -2006)


9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.

Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).

Sex chromosomal aberrations – Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.

Autosomal aberrations – Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.

Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.

·       Describe the mechanism for structural anomalies of autosomes with diagrams. 20 marks(2018)

Categorize Genes that influence Human Survival(2018)
Explain the significance of screening and counseling for genetic disorders.(2016)

·       Down’s syndrome (10Marks 2015)

·       Discuss chromosomal aberrations in man illustrating with examples. (15Marks 2015)

·       Describe Turner and Kline filter Syndromes (15Marks 2014)

·       Genetic Counselling (10Marks 2014)
 Genetic counseling (12Marks 2012)

·       Discuss the chromosomal aberrations and manifestations of Klinefelter and Turner syndromes (20Marks 2013), * Klinefelter Syndrome (. – 2003)

·       Chromosomal deletions and numerical fluctuations may lead to gross abnormalities in man.
Discuss with the help of suitable example. (30 Marks — 2010)

·       Discuss different types of sex chromosomal aberrations. (. -2007)

·       What is Genetic Counseling? Discuss its relevance in the present day context. (. – 2006), * Genetic counselling (. – 2002), * Genetic Counseling (. – 1998)

·       Discuss the relevance of human DNA profiling and Gene Mapping in the prevention and cure of diseases. (. -2001)

·       Gene therapy (. – 1995)

·       Discuss genetic and clinical aspects of the anomalies of sex chromosomes in man with Special reference to the associated mosaic constitutions (. – 1995)

9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and metric characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.·       Write notes on the following in about 150 words each: 10X5=50
 Race is a Myth. Justify its Present Day Relevance(2018)

·       Concept of race(2017)

·       Explain the role of heredity and environment in the formation of races.(2016)

9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker- ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics- Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-economic groups.·       Write notes on the following in about 150 words each:

a)     RH-blood group(2016)

9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology. Bio-cultural Adaptations – Genetic and Non- genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.·       Distinguish between adaptation, adaptability and acclimatization with examples. 20 marks(2018)

·       Discuss the responses and acclimatization to high altitude stresses.(2017)

·        Discuss the development of the concept of cultural in Anthropology.(2017)

·       Discuss the genetic and non-genetic factors in the bio-cultural adaptations of human beings to different environments.(2016)

9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology: Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases. Nutritional deficiency related diseases.·       Narrate evolution of disease and major causes of ill health in human populations. 15 marks(2018)

·       Describe the scope of Epidemiological Anthropology in the study of infectious and non-infectious diseases.(2016)

10.1 Relevance in understanding of contemporary society. Dynamics of ethnicity at rural, tribal, urban and international levels. Ethric conflicts and political developments. Concept of ethnic boundaries. Ethnicity and concept of nation state.·       Explain the impact of discovery of iron technology on contemporary society. 15 marks(2018)
10. Concept of human growth and development: stages of growth – pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.
– Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic.
– Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations – biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.
·       Do Allen’s rule and Bergmann’s rule hold for human populations? Explain with examples. 15 marks(2018)

·       Explain the mechanisms of human variation in gene frequencies. 20 marks(2018)

·       Write notes on the following in about 150 words each: 10X5=50
 Issues of Elderly and Senescence in Developing and Developed Countries(2018)

·       Discuss Sheldon’s method of somatotyping.(2017)

·       Describe the various methods of studying growth highlighting their merits and demerits.(2017)

·       Discuss different factors affecting growth and development in human beings.(2016)

11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.·       Describe the biological and socio-ecological factors affecting fertility and mortality.(2017)

·       Age at menarche(2017)

11.2  Applications of Anthropology: Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology, Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthropology, Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics – Paternity diagnosis, genetic counseling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.·       What are the methods of personal identifications? Critically examine how personal identification helps in criminal investigations.(2017)

·       Write short notes on Forensic Anthropology(2016)

12. Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility natality and mortality.·       Define fecundity and explain major factors affecting fecundity in Indian populations. 15 marks(2018)
12. 1 Applications of Anthropology: Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology, Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthropology, Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics – Paternity diagnosis, genetic counseling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.·       Anthropology and designing of equipments.(2017)

·       Describe the role of Anthropology in designing defence and other equipment.(2016)